NOVEMBRE 2018 - DOULEUR DES CHIENS ET CHATS

 
 

1/ Inter-rater and inter-device reliability of mechanical thresholds measurement with the Electronic von Frey Anaesthesiometer and the SMALGO in healthy cats

2/ Agmatine for Pain Management in Dogs with Coxofemoral Joint Osteoarthritis

3/ Animal Ethical Views and Perception of Animal Pain in Veterinary Students

 

1/ Inter-rater and inter-device reliability of mechanical thresholds measurement with the Electronic von Frey Anaesthesiometer and the SMALGO in healthy cats

Chiara Adami, Elena Lardone, Paolo Monticelli.
Fel. Med. Surg., First Published, November 22, 2018

Résumé

The aim of this study was to compare the Electronic von Frey Anaesthesiometer (EVF) and the Small Animal ALGOmeter (SMALGO), used to measure sensory thresholds in 13 healthy cats at both the stifle and the lumbosacral joint, in terms of inter-rater and inter-device reliability. Methods:
- Two independent observers carried out the sets of measurements in a randomised order, with a 45 min interval between them, in each cat.
The inter-rater and inter-device reliability were evaluated by calculating the inter-rater correlation coefficient (ICC) for each pair of measurements.
The Bland–Altman method was used as an additional tool to assess the level of agreement between the two algometers.

Results

The mean ± SD sensory thresholds measured with the EVF were 311 ± 116 g and 378 ± 178 g for the stifle and for the lumbosacral junction, respectively, whereas those measured with the SMALGO were 391 ±172 g and 476 ± 172 g.
The inter-rater reliability was fair (ICC >0.4) for each pair of measurements except those taken at the level of the stifle with the SMALGO, for which the level of agreement between observer A and B was poor (ICC = 0.01). The inter-device reliability was good (ICC = 0.73; P = 0.001).
The repetition of the measurements affected reliability, as the thresholds obtained after the 45 min break were consistently lower than those measured during the first part of the trial (P = 0.02).

Conclusions and relevance

The EVF and the SMALGO may be used interchangeably in cats, especially when the area to be tested is the lumbosacral joint. However, when the thresholds are measured at the stifle, the inter-observer reliability is better with the EVF than with the SMALGO.
The reliability decreases when the measurements are repeated within a short time interval, suggesting a limited clinical applicability of quantitative sensory testing with both algometers in cats.


2/ Agmatine for Pain Management in Dogs with Coxofemoral Joint Osteoarthritis


Takashi Taguchi, Ronald Koh, Catherine Takawira, Nathalie Rademacher, Gad Gilad, Randy S. Aronson and Mandi J. Lopez
Front. Vet. Sci., 26 Nov. 2018

Résumé

Background / Pain from coxofemoral joint (CFJ) osteoarthritis (OA) characteristic of canine hip dysplasia (CHD) afflicts many dogs. Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a common CFJ OA comorbidity.
Pain management with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is standard pain management for degenerative joint disease without or with surgical intervention.
Side effects and tolerance with prolonged administration support alternatives to NSAIDs. Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, reportedly alleviates neuropathic pain, a likely component of OA pain.
The objective of this study was to compare treatment response to agmatine and carprofen in dogs with varying degrees of CFJ OA with or without IVD degeneration and to test the hypothesis that agmatine improves hindlimb use comparably to carprofen and more than placebo.
Nine hound-type dogs received oral carprofen (4.4mg/kg, sid) for 7 days. Six months later, oral agmatine sulfate (25mg/kg, bid) or placebo (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, bid) was administered to the same dogs for 28 days with a 2 week washout period between treatments.
Validated pain assessment scores were measured before treatment and every seven days throughout the treatment periods.
Serum chemistry levels and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were compared among treatments before and after administration.
A board-certified radiologist quantified radiographic CFJ OA based on Orthopedic Foundation for Animals criteria and IVD degeneration on magnetic resonance images.

Results

There were no detectable adverse side effects or pain score change with any treatment.
Significant results included improved GRFs in dogs with mild CFJ OA (N=3) following agmatine administration compared to carprofen or placebo and a trend for improved GRFs in dogs with moderate CFJ OA (N=2) following carprofen versus agmatine or placebo.
Neither agmatine nor carprofen improved GRFs in dogs with severe CFJ OA (N=4).
The GRFs improved in dogs with IVD degeneration (N=3) following carprofen treatment compared to agmatine or placebo regardless of CFJ OA score but no effect was observed in dogs with normal lumbar spines (N=6).

Conclusions

Results support agmatine over carprofen treatment to improve limb use in dogs with early or mild CFJ OA, while carprofen may be the better choice for dogs with moderate CFJ OA or IVD degeneration regardless of CFJ OA severity.


3/ Animal Ethical Views and Perception of Animal Pain in Veterinary Students

Anna Valros and Laura HänninenAnimals, 2018, 8(12), 220; Published: 23 November 2018

Résumé : 

Veterinary students face several ethical challenges during their curriculum. We used the Animal Ethics Dilemma to study animal ethical views of Finnish veterinary students, and also asked them to score the level of pain perception in 13 different species. Based on the 218 respondents, the utilitarian view was the dominating ethical view. Mammals were given higher pain scores than other animals.
The proportion of the respect for nature view correlated negatively, and that of the animal rights view positively, with most animal pain scores.

Fifth year students had a higher percentage of contractarian views, as compared to 1st and 3rd year students, but this might have been confounded by their age.
Several pain perception scores increased with increasing study years.
We conclude that the utilitarian view was clearly dominating, and that ethical views differed only slightly between students at different stages of their studies.

Higher pain perception scores in students at a later stage of their studies might reflect an increased knowledge of animal capacities.

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 https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/8/12/220/pdf


 
Thierry Poitte