AINS et laparoscopie opioids cellules souches

21 janvier 2019


1/ Meloxicam vs robenacoxib for postoperative pain management in dogs undergoing combined laparoscopic ovariectomy and laparoscopic‐assisted gastropexy

Cristiano Bendinelli, Roberto Properzi, Paolo Boschi, Carla Bresciani, Erica Rocca, Alberto Sabbioni, Fabio Leonardi
Vet. Surg., First published: 13 January 2019

Résumé : 
To compare meloxicam and robenacoxib for short‐term postoperative pain management after combined laparoscopic ovariectomy and laparoscopic‐assisted gastropexy. Study design: Double‐blind, prospective, randomised clinical trial. Animals: Twenty‐six client‐owned female dogs. Methods: Dogs undergoing combined laparoscopic ovariectomy and laparoscopic‐assisted gastropexy were randomly divided into 2 groups. Before induction of anesthesia, 13 dogs received meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously), and 13 dogs received robenacoxib (2 mg/kg subcutaneously). Pain was scored with the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (short form) before surgery and at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after extubation. Rescue analgesia (tramadol, 3 mg/kg) was provided to dogs with a Glasgow pain score (GPS) ≥5. Glasgow pain scores were analyzed by ANOVA with treatment, age, and surgical time as fixed factors. Results: Glasgow pain scores were higher at 24 hours postsurgery in dogs treated with robenacoxib (2.18 ± 0.29) compared with those treated with meloxicam (0.68 ± 0.41, P = .04). Two dogs treated with meloxicam and 7 dogs treated with robenacoxib required rescue analgesia. Regardless of the treatment, the overall GPS was lower at 18 and 24 hours postsurgery when the surgical time was >40 minutes compared with surgical times ≤40 minutes, but surgical site inflammation was likely a confounding factor in this finding. Glasgow pain score was not affected by patient age. Conclusion: Meloxicam was more effective than robenacoxib at controlling pain in the population of dogs reported here. Clinical significance: Preoperative administration of meloxicam effectively controls pain for 24 hours after combined laparoscopic ovariectomy and laparoscopic‐assisted gastropexy, but rescue analgesia may be required.

2/ Trends in Opioid Prescribing and Dispensing by Veterinarians in Pennsylvania

Dana L. Clarke, Kenneth J. Drobatz, Chloe Korzekwa, Lewis S. Nelson, Jeanmarie Perrone
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(1):e186950. 

Résumé : 
Importance: Veterinarians are a subset of opioid prescribers. Objective: To assess the quantity and trends in prescribing and dispensing of several different opioids in the past 11 years in a large veterinary hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study inventoried all opioid tablets and/or patches dispensed or prescribed by veterinarians practicing in a multispecialty academic veterinary teaching hospital in Philadelphia for small animals and species, such as rabbits, birds, and reptiles, from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2017. Prescribing data were obtained from all veterinarians who wrote a prescription for opioids by reviewing detailed pharmacy records of controlled substances for the study period. Data included all opioids dispensed, or prescribed to animals (patients) undergoing evaluation at the center or being followed up as outpatients by the veterinarians in the hospital. Statewide veterinarian prescribing data were used for comparison. Data were analyzed from December 24, 2017, through May 15, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: The trend in administration and prescribing of 4 specific opioid analgesics (codeine sulfate, hydrocodone bitartrate, and tramadol hydrochloride tablets as well as fentanyl citrate patch) during the 11-year study period. The individual opioids were converted to morphine milligram equivalents (MME) for comparison. Results: The study included 134 veterinarians (70.9% women) with 366 468 patient visits. During the study period, the hospital veterinarians prescribed 105 183 689 tablets of tramadol, 97 547 tablets of hydrocodone, 38 939 tablets of codeine, and 3153 fentanyl patches to dogs (73.0%), cats (22.5%), and exotic animals (4.5%). Overall, MME use increased 41.2%, whereas visits increased by 12.8%. The comparison data for Pennsylvania revealed a predominance of hydrocodone use (688 340 tablets prescribed), although data were not available for comparison with tramadol because it is a Schedule IV drug. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that the large, increasing volume of opioids prescribed at 1 veterinary teaching hospital highlights concerns parallel to those about excessive opioid prescribing in humans. The extent to which these data may represent similar volumes of prescriptions from the general veterinary practices and hospitals across the United States is suggested by the accompanying Pennsylvania state data. These findings highlight an opportunity to assess the risk of veterinarian opioid prescriptions to safeguard public health.

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3/ Long-term safety and efficacy of single or repeated intra-articular injection of allogeneic neonatal mesenchymal stromal cells for managing pain and lameness in moderate to severe canine osteoarthritis without anti-inflammatory pharmacological support : Pilot clinical study

Quentin Cabon, Marine Febre, Niels Gomez, Thibaut Cachon, Paul Pillard, Claude Carozzo, Nathalie Saulnier, Clément Robert, Véronique Livet, Nadia Plantier, Philippe Saas, Stéphane Maddens and Eric Viguier
Front. Vet. Sci., 14 Jan. 2019

Résumé : 
Objective : To explore the long-term safety and efficacy of canine allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) administered intra-articularly as single or repeated injections in appendicular joints of dogs affected by moderate to severe refractory osteoarthritis.  Study design: 22 pet dogs were recruited into a non-randomized, open and monocentric study initially administering one cellular injection. A second injection was offered after 6 months to owners if the first injection did not produce expected results. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory treatment (if prescribed) was discontinued at least 15 days before the onset of treatment. Each injection consisted of at least 10 million viable neonatal allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from foetal adnexa. Medical data was collected from veterinary clinical evaluations of joints up to 6 months post-injection and owner’s assessment of their dog’s mobility and wellbeing followed for a further two years when possible. Results: Mild, immediate self-limiting inflammatory joint reactions were observed in 5/22 joints after the first injection, and in almost all dogs having a subsequent injection. No other MSC-related adverse medical events were reported, neither during the 6 months follow up visits, nor during the long-term (2-y) safety follow up. Veterinary clinical evaluation showed a significant and durable clinical improvement (up to 6 months) following MSC administration. Eight dogs (11 joints) were reinjected 6 months apart, sustaining clinical benefits up to 1 year. Owner’s global satisfaction reached 75% at 2 years post-treatment. Conclusion. Our data suggest that a single or repeated intra-articular administration of neonatal MSC in dogs with moderate to severe OA is a safe procedure and confer clinical benefits over a 24-month period. When humoral response against MSC is investigated by flow cytometry, a positive mild and transient signal was detected in only one dog from the studied cohort, this dog having had a positive clinical outcome. 

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